Investigation Update: Human Salmonella Infections Linked to Pet Bearded Dragons 



March 3, 2023 – The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has announced that the investigation into the multistate occurrence of human Salmonella Muenster infections linked to contact with bearded dragons has concluded.  

Thirty-two cases of human Salmonella infections (12 people infected with Salmonella Vitkin and 20 people infected with Salmonella IIIb) have been reported in 20 states between April 2021 and January 2023. In interviews, 17 (65%) out of 26 people reported they were recently in contact with bearded dragons before becoming sick. Contact most frequently occurred at people’s homes and included touching animals or their enclosures, feeding them and putting them on their lap, head, or shoulders.  

The ages of those infected range from less than one year to 75 years, with a median age of 8 years. Fifteen of the cases were children under the age of five. There have been no deaths; seven people have been hospitalized. The bearded dragons were purchased from pet stores in multiple states. A single, common supplier of the bearded dragons has not been identified.  

Most people infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps between six hours and six days after infection. The illness usually lasts four to seven days, and most individuals recover without treatment. Children under the age of five, senior citizens and individuals with weakened immune systems have a greater risk of infection and complications.  

Animals become infected with Salmonella through their environment, by eating contaminated food, or from their mothers before they are born or hatched. Regardless of where they are purchased, many animals can carry Salmonella and still appear healthy and clean. Animals with Salmonella shed the bacteria in their stool which can contaminate their body parts or items in their habitat, such as bedding, food, or water. People can be infected if they do not wash their hands after contact with animals carrying Salmonella or their environment.  

The CDC, Pet Advocacy Network and other expert sources recommend these precautions to protect yourself and others from contact with Salmonella bacteria that reptiles, including bearded dragons, may carry:  

    • Supervise children’s interactions with the animal, including post-encounter hand-washing. 
    • Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with water and soap right after touching, feeding, or caring for a bearded dragon or cleaning its habitat 
    • Do not let the animal into areas where food or drink is prepared, served, or stored. 
    • Do not snuggle or kiss the animal, or touch your mouth, eat or drink around them. 
    • To prevent cross-contamination, clean items you use to care for your bearded dragon outside the house, if possible. Items you use to care for it may include tanks, food and water containers, and toys. If you clean these items indoors, do not clean them in the kitchen or other areas where food is eaten or prepared. Use a laundry sink or bathtub, and thoroughly clean and disinfect the area immediately. 
    • Pick the right pet for your family. Bearded dragons and other reptiles are not recommended for children under the age of five, adults aged 65 and older, and people with weakened immune systems because they are more likely to get serious illness from germs that reptiles can carry.  

    Pet retailers are strongly encouraged to provide information on disease risk and prevention measures to consumers purchasing pets, and to employees handling these companion animals. Such information includes the “Healthy Herp Handling” poster, which can be found listed in the resources below.